The protection and preservation of the environment and energy saving are the hallmarks of this twenty-first century. This ecological objective can not be achieved without radical changes in human activities most polluting. Among these include the means of transport most used by man: the car. For example, concerning the rate of emissions of pollutants, if we cite only carbon dioxide or CO2, and only in the case of the region of Ile de France, road transport is responsible for Issue 14 396.9 kilotonnes per year against 11 075.8 for industry.
Among the solutions proposed by car manufacturers, there are cars running on bio-fuels such as gasoline to ethanol, those using solar energy or operating with a battery, ie electric cars.
Contrary to some misconceptions, the electric car is not the result of ecological thinking of the twenty-first century but has been tested and operated since the genesis of the automotive industry. Competition between the electric motor and the gas engine does not date from yesterday and the dumb passed by the first type of engine for almost a century is that the supplier of electrical power, namely the battery was too very heavy bulky. About its central charge, they were almost non-existent and electric motors were considered too quiet, so dangerous for pedestrians. But the real reason the motor was forgotten by the automotive industry is the invention of "crank" or automatic starter designed for the gas engine.
The first appearance of the vehicle qualified electrical imprecise. Although some sources state that it dates back to around 1830 and was the invention of a Scottish named Robert Anderson. At that time, the work of the latter corresponded to more than one vehicle a cart. Robert Anderson then gave way to an American by the name of Thomas Davenport whose invention was closer to a locomotive.
In 1859, Gaston Plante invented the first rechargeable lead acid, a finding that will be very useful for future electric cars.
In 1881 appears the actual first car of this type and it is the work of a certain J. Raffard. He had not only designed the craft but also the machine to recharge the battery. An invention that will be challenged by Thomas Parker in 1884, who says he is the author of the first electric car and proves it with a picture support. Other studies argue that this is an American named William Morrison in 1891, was the forerunner in the industry. In fact, he invented the first electric vehicle to be marketed.
The first electric car to exceed the speed of 100 km / h was referred to as "Jamais Contente" and was built in Belgium in 1899. It was equipped with Michelin tires and adopted as a torpedo.
In the 1900s, more than a third of existing vehicles worldwide were electric and this is also the renaissance of petrol engines which resulted in the introduction on the market of Ford Model T. Around 1912, the sale of electric vehicles was in decline due to the accessibility of the essence, the very high price of these types of car compared to petrol and especially the low speed and autonomy of the latter.
After more than 60 years of slumber, the concept of the electric car resurfaced in 1972 with the invention by Victor Wouk the first hybrid car of this twentieth century called Buick Skylark. An initiative taken by the Golf mark in 1974 that this show Vanguard-Sebring CitiCar the first car manufacturer mainly electrical.
In 1976, the U.S. Congress gave a boost to the concept through a project that will promote research in building electric cars. An initiative of the word by the manufacturer General Motors which influences the output of the model EV1.
In 1990, several projects compete and generate multiple output prototypes. Between 1996 and 2000, several models will be the one whose 1117 General Motors EV1, the Toyota Prius, a hybrid, like the Chevrolet S-10.
Between 2000 and 2006, the concept was again silent for a strong comeback with the trend "eco" and "bio" of our time. Several prototypes are advertised favorites in this race to the fully electric vehicle such as the Nissan EV-11 or Lotus cities of Lotus Engineering.