A space elevator

vignetteYou enter the elevator. Then you press the button and presto! More than 200 km / h, you're in space, aboard the International Space Station. A dream? Not so much!

The idea of ​​an elevator to space is not new: it is a Russian mathematician Yuri Artsutanov, who had imagined in 1960. But today, NASA believes very strong, and even launched a contest last year to validate the concept.

Must first set up the cable. It will be carried, rolled into geosynchronous orbit by small rockets, and deployed vertically from the base platform of 1500 tons located in the Pacific (at the equator).

space elevator
Along almost 100 000 km, will be attached to the Earth at a base station. At the other end, a counterweight (eg a small asteroid) will keep the cable taut. Basically, it will be stretched by gravity, and centripetal forces and acceleration at the other end. © Nasa
Remains to find a material capable of withstanding such constraints. Carbon nanotubes seem to be the only possibility: these hoses 10,000 times thinner than a human hair is 100 times stronger than steel.

Risk of collision

Elevator cars will be powered by parabolic antennas of 13 m diameter, which receive electricity through the laser beam. The main risks collision with meteorites, and corrosion due to free oxygen atoms found at very high altitudes. According to experts, the problem can be solved by different methods (form ribbon, metal reinforcement ...). According to their calculations, the cable can withstand impacts of objects up to 10 cm in diameter.
The space elevator would send into space all types of objects, provided they are not too heavy: solar satellites, space stations bags, supplies, etc..

Cheap and easily exploitable

While space shuttles burn more than 2 million liters of fuel just to break away from Earth's orbit, the elevator is it relatively cheap. The cost to orbit would be reduced to $ 48 per kilogram, against $ 22 000 per kilogram on a rocket. More than 5 tons of goods may well be sent each day in this way. In short, a highly profitable project, whose total cost is still estimated at $ 7 or $ 10 billion, including start-up costs. Other lifts could then see the light from the Moon, Mars, Venus or even ...


  1. Tutankhamun said: ..."with exponential Progress³ of Science and Technology, in the Future things will come which now not can even imagine"... 3d bioprinting = Immortality = go to stars

  2. [b░]°◄°═▀▀o⌂░░50m░░1░░▬█▓║▓50m▓║▓2▓║▓☼▓½╠╬╬50m╬╬╬3╬╣______...space-elevator (orbital-station balloon)... a sand´s transport, Provisional Carrier Tube (PCT), such as an huge hypodermic syringe, with SQUARE TRANSVERSAL SECTIONS both Tubes that PCT has: a Piston-Interior-Tube "with" approx. 100 mts total...and an EXTERIOR-TUBE "with" 150 mts*2 mts of side wide, divided into 3 sections with 50 mts each one... SECTION-1 (front): useful SAND´s CHARGE, by where the Piston goes climbing, with its solid HEAD ▬█adjusted to the 4 inside walls, sliding with longitudinal movement along, ←░SHOVING THE SAND...e.g. approx. sizes Piston´s WIDE, if exterior-tube wall´s thickness has 0.01 mts: Heads mts without▬ = 0.2*1.98; the ½ highest Piston´s remainder length, 49.8 mts, has some less of side wide, only 1.58 mts, than its head, for going sliding over long roller-bearings-e.g.-mts-sizes = 1.50*0.2, installed between Piston and walls, roller-bearings are only into section-2; section-1 it is empty for receiving sand; and section-3 it is empty for receiving the end ½ Piston´s rear part with cog-zippers, other 50 mts, rear part who has even less side wide than Piston´s highets part (for example instead of 1.58 mts, only 1.2 mts) for do NOT TOUCHING AMONG the linear motion-less ROLLER-BEARINGS AND the COG-ZIPPERS when these go upwards or downwards by the section-2... SECTION-2 (middle): Piston´s house when it is all down, only into this section there are ROLLER-║-BEARINGS sand´s protected on the 4 inside walls for easy PISTON´s MOVEMENT and GUIDING. At bottom´s outsides it is the POWER´s ZONE ☼ with 4 ELECTRICAL MOTORS on outside walls installed and firmly fixed... SECTION-3 (rear): only for covering the Piston´s lowest part when it is all DOWN, PISTON that has the COG-ZIPPERS ╠╬╬╬╣ on their 4 sides all along...GEARING here the COGWHEELS ☼ of the very thickness, resistant and GYRATING TRANSMISSION AXES...having each axis both extremes firmly fixed into BEARINGS on both opposite walls of the Exterior-Tube...POWER than comes from outside, powered each axis for each powerful ELECTRICAL MOTOR through its MOTOR´s DE-MULTIPLICATION BOX... A hyperspeed Maglev Train... Instead of an Asteroid could be an artificial Orbital-Station with sufficient mass, for example with adequate sizes, an inox Cylindrical-Tank, or a huge, once deployed with gas pressure from its little carry container, Cylindrical Mesh and within a resistant graphene´s Inflatable Balloon (once deployed leave again with the spatial-empty inside)...full of SAND sent from the equatorial Desert, where the Space-Elevators are installed, into 2 PCT (while one go up, the other go down) with various hooks Tube´s along, so the PCT is always parallel to cable. 1 PCT attached at each cable of the System Pulleys "clothesline" (4 Pulleys: 2 on Earth and 2 UNDER Orbital-Station separated "20 mts" between both, in each installation). System which is parallel installed by outside next to the main Central Track still without Train...

  3. ...space-elevator (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... geostationary orbit, a huge "bike-wheel" is gyrating around it own axis for have 1g-centrifugal. Wheel held in place with 4 CABLES FORMING THE STRUCTURE OF A RHOMBUS♦ (minor diagonal of the rhombus is the axis of gyration of the Station-Wheel)...rhombus´s below, the carbon nanotubes Track towards Earth...rhombus´s above, the cable towards the higher counterweight...if...WHEEL´S RADIUS = 250 mts...Axi´s length gyration of the Wheel = rhombus´s minor diagonal = Wheel´s radius = 250 mts... Cable´s length of the rhombus´s side = diameter of the Wheel = 500 mts. Wheel´s ZONE-1g: habitable length = 1571 mts, gyrating 360º each 32 seconds, angular-speed = 11.25º/sec, linear-speed = 177 kms/h... Station-Wheel´s GYRATION: AXIS IN PERPENDICULAR (90º) ORIENTATION TO THE ORBITAL TRAJECTORY...and so, while Station-Wheel follows the geostationary orbit, the Wheel does not changes the spatial-orientation of its axis, and thus there are Not forces of Precession actuating (and thus there is Not collision tendency of the Station-Wheel against the rhombus´s cables...but the system must supporting lateral charges against Track produced by the Coriolis effect when Train goes upwards or downwards...), the gyroscopic-rigidity contributes for maintaining forever the gyration-axis perpendicular to orbital trajectory... When the Maglev Train arrives slowly, using now their retractable cogwheels by the Zipper-Track (installed in the same Maglev-Track), Train stops in Geo 0g-Station placed over one extreme of the gyration-axis... Passengers disembark and they take now the interior-elevator of one of the Wheel´s hollow-radius, and "descend" till Hotel into the final Zone-1g...where while Station-Wheel goes turning there are Earth´s awesome views...

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  5. ☼↓↓▓0.08g▬▬▬←▬▬▬▬▬↓☺▬▬♦1g▬→▬▬1g...Space-elevator (orbital station ramp)... Faraway high beyond Earth surface at 150,000 kms...fast orbital speed 11.4 kms/sec...with only 0.08g centrifugal, 0.8 mts/sec² (a person that has 80 kgs ↓ gravitational force on Earth equator radius=6378.1 kms; over there with a radius=156378.1 kms only has 6.64 kgs ↑ centrifugal force...gravitational force downwards minus centrifugal force upwards)...could be the counterweight Terminal Orbital Station-Ramp... Awaits passengers in Earth-Station a hyperspeed vertical electric Train of Magnetic Levitation... "Spatial Train coming from Orbital Station-Ramp and Orbital Station Wheel at these moments arriving will depart again after one hour, passengers with Moon destination please embark on SHIP-COACH when will be hooked at Train´s end"...(((if...Train´s mass=1000 Tm and its vertical max-speed=10000 kms/h...←LATERALS→, ↓ to East, and ↑ to West, Coriolis´s effect against Track: acceleration=0.4 mts/sec², FORCE=41 Tm...this lateral thrust→ must be counteracted ←in opposite direction with an equal thrust from "some class" of Lateral thrust Train´s outside...or, without it, permitting Track´s lateral-movements, having then the Orbital Station-Wheel supported into Subjection´s Cardan-Joint, and so with free Precession´s Wheel-movements, to sufficient distance from Rhombus´s Cables...and then would have that "jumping" that little distance towards/from Wheel axis´s-extreme in a spacecraft)))...medium-speed = 5,000 kms/hour: Earth/Orbital Station-Wheel, distance = 35,786 kms...total travel time = 7 hours... Orbital Station-Wheel/Orbital Station-Ramp, distance = 114,214 kms...total travel time = 23 hours... Well seized from retractable cogwheels, with slow-speed at the beginning travel of strong gravitation from Earth, with conventional Zipper-Track... THE TRAIN DEPARTS►... "Passengers please belts"...starting horizontal from Station, when train goes climbing is VERTICAL, looking upwards...vertical-train with special zig-zag corridor with protections and seats also in the center for avoiding passenger´s fall down in straight line till coach´s bottom... Already enough far, with little gravitational Earth attraction: MAGLEV on...Cogwheels off... Here we go...goooooo!...hyperspeed→... Already braking enough near from each Station...slow-speed, changes propulsion system again: COGWHEELS on...Maglev off... Entering in slow track on rhombus structure... 7 hours: half length above half length below though Station´s floor, Train is on rhombus inclined track at zero-speed, near from Water-Recycling Plant with carbon nanotube´s filters...and the other Air-Filtering Plant with catalysts...the passengers disembark in weightlessness: Geo 0g-Station...passing from static-platform to gyratory circular corridor, go taking soon an interior-elevator in one of the hollows-radius and "descending"...finally, the pasengers have arrived at destination: Wheel centrifuge 1g-Station, with its gyration´s-axis perpendicular to orbital trajectory... a Wheel with 500 mts diameter, 1g-habitable length 1571 mts*50 mts wide*50 mts height...gyrating into 4 cables, two of them with a track for Train, a rhombus structure forming for Wheel´s supporting...

  6. (2)...space-elevator (orbital station ramp)... Tour continuing again... THE TRAIN DEPARTS►... once passed the slow track on rhombus structure, enters again on fast main Track... km 50,630, braking: Moon-Launching-Point, Train is at zero-speed, rear SHIP-COACH is released staying alone, again... THE TRAIN DEPARTS►... (((SHIP-COACH, while Earth turns, awaits patient the hour for releasing from Track and going to Moon with exact heading...now...takeoff and goes transferring orbits till Moon orbit where firing rocket again, brakes and lands on Moon☺Station... "Come to occult face with us and visiting the ancient Alien in ruins City"... and once recharged with fuel and passengers...equal than aircraft carrier, from a Launching-Catapult...SHIP-COACH TAKEOFF►...and returns conventionally to Earth)))... Already enough near from Terminal (magnetic shield anti-radiation and UV rays protection)...slowly by zipper-track train´s cogwheels are braking strongly "downhill"... 23 hours: Train is horizontal on Terminal at zero-speed, near from Ship´s Launching-Ramp towards Jupiter/interstellar Space, in spectacular and covered by transparent graphene´s domes with Earth views always in the ceiling, the passengers disembark at destination: counterweight centrifuge Ramp 0.08g-Station.

  7. (3) space-elevator (orbital station ramp)... if, Train´s mass=10 Tm...from Earth-Station Train starts and goes climbing (100 kms/h)... 100 kms height: that train still would weight...9692 kgs↓ - 35 kgs↑ = 9.65 Tm↓, thus its maglev power would must be at least 10 Tm↑ thrust... On Track, besides, there are 3 (one at down in Earth-Station, one at middle in Rhombus-structure, and one at top in Ramp-Station) special powerful automatic maglev-vehicles which, in case of emergency, would go out to Train´s encounter and equaling speed between both, soft contact and both stopping... On Train, besides, 2 gigantic and folded in little compartments graphene´s parachutes with rigid central-ring for Track passing through: one parachute at Train´s front only for emergency when Train goes climbing, and so it could return "softly" to ground... And other parachute at Train´s rear with a sophisticated system also maglev of rigid central-ring for Track passing parachute´s through without hitching... On come back, at 9,000 kms height (exosphere) maglev central-ring is launched and pulling extracts and deploys its parachute, when Train comes hyper-speedy and maglev-braking falling towards Earth, for avoid now already Gravity´s acceleration...aero-braked regulating with a major or minor Distance between Train and canopy´s rigid-central-ring of the parachute: max Distance, chute totally deployed max braking...less Distance, chute partially deployed less braking. System of rear parachute which normally before touch ground is automatically refolded (bringing again canopy´s central-ring into its Train´s compartment and coiling the canopy and its fine cords around motorized gyro-rollers)... Train enters on terminal horizontal-track and stops in Earth-Station.

  8. (2)...space-elevator (orbital station bike wheel-1g)... if...WHEEL´s RADIUS = 250 mts... Wheel gyration´s Axis length = rhombus´s minor diagonal = ½ Wheel´s radius = 125 mts (axis could be a resistant hollow tube with for example 20 mts in diameter with an adequate wall´s thickness, hollow which could serving how tank of anything, e.g. air, or tank of frozen water storage no totally full, for volume expansion from liquid to ice without tank, Axis, breakingm thawing using solar-heat)... Cable´s length of the rhombus´s side = Wheel diameter = 500 mts. Wheel´s ZONE-1g: habitable length = 1571 mts*50 mts wide (separation at both sides between Cable and Circumference of the gyratory Wheel, approx.= 5 mts, adjusting this separation installing an Axis with major or minor length, as much as shorter Axis...stronger and, for easy train´s passing, an angle nearer to 180º value in both rhombus´s-vertex, minor diagonal, where are the Big Soundless-♫-Bearings of Axis´s-insertion...a few Electrical Motors fed with Solar-Energy maintain automatically the gyration-speed counteracting the slow braking by friction from the Bearings...besides of Bearings: main Maglev system also for the gyration and Axis´s supporting, leaving the Bearings only how secondary security system?...with a slight roominess between each Bearing and its exterior subjection, into the roominess all around...little solid pistons radial extensible and retractable... Axi´s subjection: extensible ON, with Bearings; extensible OFF, with Maglev. With a sufficient cables tension coming from the counterweight, if Axis resists: the rhombus structure is undeformable)*10 Floors with 25 mts in height each one, gyrating 360º each 31 seconds...a person with 80 kgs mass, would have in each Floor a centrifugal force:... Floor 1: 1.04g=84 kgs... Floor 2: 0.94g=75 kgs... Floor 3: 0.84g=67 kgs... Floor 4: 0.73g=59 kgs... Floor 5: 0.63g=50 kgs... Floor 6: 0.52g=42 kgs... Floor 7: 0.42g=34 kgs... Floor 8: 0.31g=25 kgs... Floor 9: 0.21g=17 kgs... Floor 10: 0.1g=8.4 kgs...it gyrating into 4 cables, each cable with a track for Train, a rhombus structure forming for Wheel´s supporting...

  9. ...interstellar travel constant acceleration (Sun-Deneb: 1000g)... Earth...the 2 ships that will go formation flying for mutual assisting if there are problems...indestructible structures made of Hexapentas material, awaiting in airport the arrival of passengers... Day 1: zero-speed... THE SHIPS TAKEOFF►... navigation computer places on screen the spacecraft in the center of sphere...spherical\tridimensional\spatial Heading: Deneb... Antimatter rocket engines...ON... Here we go...goooooo!...1g...10g...100g...constant acceleration cruise: 1000g (9.8 kms/sec²)... Inside the living areas (the same as going submerged in water: constant acceleration downwards...less...constant thrust, constant acceleration from water upwards)...the gravitational transformers, perfectly synchronized with the acceleration, running: 1000g constant acceleration toward the floor ↓↓(motors)↓↓...less...999g constant acceleration toward the ceiling ↑↑(gravitational transformers)↑ = 1g constant acceleration toward the floor↓... 8.5 hours: light-speed = 1c...the fusion reactor as an artificial sun illuminating the immense Vital Support Gardens to lowering, from their comfortable apartments, cheerful passage to the pool...the electromagnetic shield anti-radiation...antigravity fields generator run forward, working: light objects away from the path of the ship...and trajectory ship away from the heavy objects...superluminal-speed > 1c... 42.5 hours: reaches hyperluminal-speed = 5c... Day 508: Half Journey...1000 light years...high hyperluminal-speed = 1435.39c... OFF engines...a few minutes of weightlessness during maneuver...the ship rotates 180º around its axis...motors ON again and... ◄STARTS TO BRAKE... Day 1017 (2.79 years): End Path party...2000 light years...zero-speed... The forever young passage of the 1st Immortal Generation (3D Bioprinting...Telomerase...modified Biological Timers...) disembarks at destination: an extra-stellar planet which came errant to orbit of Deneb giant.